Troubleshoot: You must upgrade to Litespeed “5.2.1 build 2 or later”, in order to upgrade to the next version of cPanel & WHM.

Error Message

You must upgrade to Litespeed “5.2.1 build 2 or later”, in order to upgrade to the next version of cPanel & WHM.


The error appears because Litespeed below 5.2.1 doesn’t have SSL compatibility with Cpanel 11.68. Although, this goes further, if you uninstall the plugin, and upcp will still fail to update the Cpanel/WHM. A workaround for this, is to install and uninstall the plugin through Litespeed auto installer. Here is how to do that:

Download Litespeed Auto Installer for Cpanel

# wget
# chmod a+x

Install Litespeed for Cpanel/WHM using Auto Installer

# ./ TRIAL 1 8080 username testpass1234 1 0

Uninstall Litespeed

# /usr/local/lsws/admin/misc/

Uninstall Litespeed WHM Plugin

# /usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot/cgi/lsws/

Run upcp:

# /scripts/upcp --force

Quick Tip: How to Check Total Number of Mails in Postfix Queue

Exim provides a quick way to check the total number of mails in the queue. This is done using the exim -bpc Although, this is not the same for postfix. Postfix doesn’t come with an easy way to do that.

How to Check Total Number of Mails in Postfix Queue

A quick tip on what I use to check the postfix queue number is the following command:

# mailq | tail -n 1
-- 6899 Kbytes in 1518 Requests.

Basically, postfix returns the queue statistics at the end of the queue listing command. We are simply tailing that to find the number.


How To: Clear Postfix and Exim Queue

How to clear postfix queue

Postfix queue can be cleared using the postsuper command. The syntax is as following:

# postsuper -d ALL

It will clear all the postfix queue. You can specifically clear the deferred emails for example from the postfix queue as following:

# postsuper -d ALL deferred

If you have a large quantity in postfix queue, there is actually a quicker and easier way to do that. You can simply remove all the folders under /var/spool/postfix and it will clear the queue.

# rm -Rf /var/spool/postfix/*
# mailq | tail -n 1
Mail queue is empty

Note: The folders inside postfix would get created automatically once the queue starts filling up, nothing to worry about.

How to clear Exim Queue

Exim queue can be checked using the following:

# exim -bp

To check the number of mails in queue, you can use:

# exim -bpc

To remove a message from exim queue, you need to use the following:

# exim -Mrm {message-id}

There is no build in command to clear all the mails from exim queue. You can use a pipe command to clear the exim queue as following:

# exim -bp | exiqgrep -i | xargs exim -Mrm

Although, there are even quicker and easier way to clear the exim queue, specially if you have a lot of emails in queue and the server is pretty loaded.

# rm -Rf /var/spool/exim/input

Removing the input directory should clear the exim queue. Note: The directory would automatically create once the exim starts it’s queue again, no need to worry.

Troubleshoot: fatal: open lock file /var/lib/postfix/master.lock: unable to set exclusive lock

Error Message & Trace details:

One of my customer came with an error saying the postfix in his server isn’t working. The server was running CentOS 7, and the system postfix status was inactive, means not running. Although, the system queue was running I could see. The error that was returning while restarting/checking status was the following:

# service postfix status
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl status postfix.service
● postfix.service - Postfix Mail Transport Agent
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/postfix.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Tue 2018-01-09 04:04:05 UTC; 1s ago
Process: 9201 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/postfix start (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)
Process: 9197 ExecStartPre=/usr/libexec/postfix/chroot-update (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
Process: 9194 ExecStartPre=/usr/libexec/postfix/aliasesdb (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
Main PID: 1358 (code=killed, signal=TERM)

Jan 09 04:04:03 systemd[1]: Starting Postfix Mail Transport Agent...
Jan 09 04:04:03 postfix/master[9273]: fatal: open lock file /var/lib/postfix/master.lock: unable to set exclusive lock: Resource tempo...vailable
Jan 09 04:04:04 postfix/master[9272]: fatal: daemon initialization failure
Jan 09 04:04:05 postfix/postfix-script[9274]: fatal: mail system startup failed
Jan 09 04:04:05 systemd[1]: postfix.service: control process exited, code=exited status=1
Jan 09 04:04:05 systemd[1]: Failed to start Postfix Mail Transport Agent.
Jan 09 04:04:05 systemd[1]: Unit postfix.service entered failed state.
Jan 09 04:04:05 systemd[1]: postfix.service failed.

How to fix:

The error to note here is the following:

fatal: open lock file /var/lib/postfix/master.lock

I first killed the smtp and smtpd processes that runs by postfix:

# killall -9 smtp
# killall -9 smtpd

But that didn’t solve the problem. I then used the fuser command to check which process holds the lock file:

# fuser /var/lib/postfix/master.lock
/var/lib/postfix/master.lock: 18698

Then we check the process 18698 and kill the responsible process:

# ps -axwww|grep 18698
9333 pts/0 S+ 0:00 grep --color=auto 18698

18698 ? Ss 4:28 /usr/libexec/postfix/master -w
# killall -9 /usr/libexec/postfix/master
# kill -9 18698

Once the process is killed, you can now start the postfix:

# service postfix start
# service postfix status|grep Active
Redirecting to /bin/systemctl status postfix.service
Active: active (running) since Tue 2018-01-09 04:15:50 UTC; 4min 45s ago

Troubleshoot: killall command not found in centos 7


If you are using a centos 7 minimal installation, and trying to kill process by name using the command ‘killall’, you are most likely going to see the error:

# killall -9 php
killall: command not found

The error appears because CentOS 7 encourages you to use pkill instead of killall to kill process by name. pkill has versatile application, although, it can be used to kill process by name same as killall.

How to kill process by name in Centos 7

You can use pkill. pkill is a simple command. It’s syntax is as following:

# pkill processname

For example, if you want to kill all the php process, run:

# pkill php

Note: It will kill all the processes that match php. To list the process that pkill going to kill, you can use pgrep as following:

# pgrep -l php

How to use killall in Centos 7

If you do not want to use pkill, and keep using killall commands in centos 7, this is also possible. killall is a part of psmisc yum package. All you have to do, is to install psmisc in your system using yum

# yum install psmisc
# killall -9 php


How to install ifconfig in CentOS 7

CentOS 7 doesn’t come with ifconfig tools. It encourages users to use ‘ip’ tool for network administration. Although, it is still possible to use ifconfig with CentOS 7. ifconfig is a part of net-tools package. All you have to do is to install the net-tools package using yum.

How to install ifconfig in CentOS 7

Run the following command to install net-tools package in CentOS 7, this will install ifconfig as well:

# yum install net-tools -y
# ifconfig

How to: Change Timezone in CentOS / RHEL 6 & CentOS / RHEL 7

How to change Timezone in CentOS 6 / RHEL 6

In CentOS 6, timezone files are located under /usr/share/zoneinfo. So, if your zone is for example, America/Chicago (UTC -6), it would be /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Chicago and so on.

CentOS 6, uses a file called ‘localtime’ located under /etc to determine it’s currently set timezone.

# ls -la /etc/localtime

This file, is either the actual time zone file moved to this location or a symlink to the timezone under zoneinfo directory. So if you want to change the timezone, first you need to determine which timezone to use and then symlink it to localtime. You can do that using the following:

# rm -f /etc/localtime
# ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Dhaka /etc/localtime
# date

This would set the current timezone to GMT +6 BDT or Asia/Dhaka timezone, zone I belong to.

How to change timezone in CentOS 7 or RHEL 7

CentOS 7, comes with a tool called ‘timedatectl’. This can be used to find and set the symlink for you instead of doing the work that were required in CentOS 6.

To list available time zones, run:

# timedatectl list-timezones

You can find your desired timezone, as following:

# timedatectl list-timezones | grep Chicago

Now, to set a time zone, use the command set-timezone with timedatectl command. For example, if I want to set the time zone to America/Chicago, I would run the following:

# timedatectl set-timezone America/Chicago
# date

This also should create the symlink of locatime file to the zoneinfo directory. You can see that with the following:

# ls -l /etc/localtime

How To: Get Username from UID & Vice Versa in Linux


I have an UID, how do I get the username belongs to this UID in Linux?

How to Get UID from USERNAME in Linux

We usually know, there is a dedicated command called ‘id’ in linux given to find UID from username is called ‘id

You can use that to get the UID from the username in linux:

# id -u root

How to get Username from UID in Linux

Although, there is no built in command get fetch the username from the UID. We can use a pipe and regular expression match on getent to do that.

getent is a unix command that helps a user get entries in a number of important text files called databases. This includes the passwd and group databases which store user information – hence getent is a common way to look up user details on Unix.

You can use the following command to find username of the UID 752 for example in a system:

# getent passwd "752"|cut -d: -f1

getent can take group database too, although, we have used passwd database as that contains the UID of the respective linux user.

Troubleshooting: Imunify360 database is corrupt. Application cannot run with corrupt database

Error Message:

# service imunify360 start
Starting imunify360: WARNING [+ 3743ms] defence360agent.utils.check_db|DatabaseError detected: database disk image is malformed
WARNING [+ 3766ms] defence360agent.cli.subparsers.common.server|Imunify360 database is corrupt. Application cannot run with corrupt database. Please, contact Imunify360 support team at

Detail Information & Explanation:

If you are using imunify360, an application firewall for linux servers by Cloudlinux team, you might incur an error where it says the database is corrupt. You might first see ‘Imunify360 is not started’ error from the WHM panel and end up getting the above error message as stated. Imunify360 uses a SQL database, located under ‘/var/imunify360/imunify360.db’. This image is checked everytime Imunfi360 tries to start, and if the database is malformed, it would not start. Fortunately, imunify360 comes with tools to handle this database and recover if corrupted.

How to Fix:

First, we start by running database integrity check. This can be done using the following:

imunfiy360-agent checkdb

(From Imunify360 Doc: checkdb  – Check database integrity)

Once done, you can now use ‘migratedb’ to repair and restore if the database is corrupted.

imunify360-agent migratedb

(From Imunify360 Doc: migratedb – Check and repair database if it is corrupted.)

If migratedb fails, the only way to recover this is to reinstall imunify360.

Linux How To: Install IPTABLES in CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 Replacing FirewallD

CentOS 7 / RHEL 7 doesn’t come with iptables by default. It uses a full functional firewall system called ‘firewalld’. I have been a big fan of iptables and it’s capability from the very first, and since I have switched to CentOS 7, I couldn’t stop using it. I had to stop firewalld and install iptables in all of my CentOS 7 installation and start using iptables rules as I was using before. Here is a small How To guide on installing Iptables and disabling firewalld from a CentOS 7 or RHEL 7 or a similar variant distro.

How to Install IPTABLES in CentOS 7

To begin using iptables, you need to download and install iptables-service package from the repo. It isn’t installed automatically on CentOS 7. To do that, run the following command:

# yum install iptables-services -y

How to stop the firewalld service and start the Iptables service

Once the iptables-serivces package is installed, you can now stop the firewalld and start the iptables. Keeping both kind of network filtering too can create conflicts and it is recommended to use any out of two. To do that run the following:

# systemctl stop firewalld
# systemctl start iptables

Now to disable firewalld from the starting after the boot, you need to disable the firewalld:

# systemctl disable firewalld

To disallow starting firewalld manually as well, you can mask it:

# systemctl mask firewalld

Now you can enable iptables to start at the boot time by enabling iptables using systemctl command:

# systemctl enable iptables

How to check status of iptables in centOS 7

In previous distros, iptables status could be fetched using service command, although, the option is no longer available in CentOS 7. To fetch the iptables status, use the following:

# iptables -S

Iptables save command can still be used using service tool:

# service iptables save

This would save your iptables rules to /etc/sysconfig/iptables as it used to do in previous distros.