How to Change memory_limit in Virtualmin

Question

I want to change the memory_limit of a virtual host in virtualmin. How can I do that?

Solution

First, login to Virtualmin on port 10000, now, select the virtual host from the dropdown under Virtualmin tab. Now under the services, there are PHP 5 Configuration and PHP 7 Configuration

Click on the version you want to change configuration for. It will show you a list of options to change php variables.

Now there is ‘Resource Limit’, that contains the options like maximum execution time, or memory limit for PHP.

Now, change the ‘Maximum Memory Allocation’ option to something that you want to change memory_limit of php in virtualmin

How to run composer with different PHP versions in Cpanel?

Question:

When we try to run a composer command, like update, we usually do the following:

composer update

Cpanel has multiple PHP binaries, but in this case, we are unable to select a specific PHP binary to use, instead we have to run it with the default one, how to run composer update with a different php binary in cpanel?

Solution

composer binary file, is a phar file. PHAR is necessarily a PHP Archive and usually automatically detect the running php. But as it is essentially written in php, you may explicitly run it with a different php binary, if you want. To run composer with different php binary, first, you need to find the location of composer. You may do so, using the following:

[email protected] [~]# which composer
/opt/cpanel/composer/bin/composer

Cpanel different php binaries are available under the following kind of directory:

/opt/cpanel/ea-phpXX/usr/bin/php

XX is the version number of PHP. So for example if you need to use PHP 7.4, you would need to run using the following:

/opt/cpanel/ea-php74/usr/bin/php

Now, to run composer update along with PHP 7.4 binary, you may do something like the following:

/opt/cpanel/ea-php74/usr/bin/php /opt/cpanel/composer/bin/composer update

First, make sure you are in the directory where you want to install laravel, for example, something like the following:

cd /home/username/public_html

Then, you may run the above command:

/opt/cpanel/ea-php74/usr/bin/php /opt/cpanel/composer/bin/composer update
or in case, you want to to install
/opt/cpanel/ea-php74/usr/bin/php /opt/cpanel/composer/bin/composer install
or may be, you wan to run update with no-scripts
/opt/cpanel/ea-php74/usr/bin/php /opt/cpanel/composer/bin/composer update --no-scripts

Uncaught ErrorException: require(/home/username/public_html/vendor/composer/../../app/Helpers/helper.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/username/public_html/vendor/composer/autoload_real.php:71

Error Details

While trying to run any of the following with Laravel composer installer, you see an error similar to the following:

Uncaught ErrorException: require(/home/username/public_html/vendor/composer/../../app/Helpers/helper.php): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/username/public_html/vendor/composer/autoload_real.php:71

How to fix this?

Solution

The error is appearing, most likely you forgot to add the ‘app’ directory of laravel in your root directory. Make sure, you have the ‘app’ directory in your root directory, then run any of the following:

If this is the first time, you need all laravel packages, run:

composer install

If this is not the first time, you may run the following:

composer update

Good luck.

How to Fix: Facebook\WebDriver\Exception\UnknownErrorException: unknown error: cannot find Chrome binary – Laravel Dusk

When run the following command in your Laravel Automation Tool Dusk:

php artisan dusk

You get something like the following error:

[[email protected] blog]$ php artisan dusk
PHPUnit 9.3.11 by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.

E                                                                   1 / 1 (100%)

Time: 00:00.339, Memory: 18.00 MB

There was 1 error:

1) Tests\Browser\ExampleTest::testBasicExample
Facebook\WebDriver\Exception\UnknownErrorException: unknown error: cannot find Chrome binary

/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/php-webdriver/webdriver/lib/Exception/WebDriverException.php:139
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/php-webdriver/webdriver/lib/Remote/HttpCommandExecutor.php:370
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/php-webdriver/webdriver/lib/Remote/RemoteWebDriver.php:136
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/tests/DuskTestCase.php:40
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/dusk/src/Concerns/ProvidesBrowser.php:200
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Support/helpers.php:234
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/dusk/src/Concerns/ProvidesBrowser.php:201
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/dusk/src/Concerns/ProvidesBrowser.php:95
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/dusk/src/Concerns/ProvidesBrowser.php:65
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/tests/Browser/ExampleTest.php:21

ERRORS!
Tests: 1, Assertions: 0, Errors: 1.

The error actually appears because you do not have Chrome browser installed on your system. Now, exit from your user shell, and drop back to the root shell. From the root shell, if you are using CentOS 7, you may run the following:

First Download the Latest Chrome RPM:

wget https://dl.google.com/linux/direct/google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm

Run it with YUM:

yum install ./google-chrome-stable_current_*.rpm

If you are on CentOS 8, you may use dnf installer as following:

dnf localinstall google-chrome-stable_current_x86_64.rpm

Once the installation is done, you may now go back to the user shell and run laravel dusk:

[[email protected] lib64]# su - elastic-keldysh
Last login: Thu Oct  1 15:39:18 IST 2020 on pts/0
[[email protected] ~]$ php artisan dusk
Could not open input file: artisan
[[email protected] ~]$ cd blog
[[email protected] blog]$ php artisan dusk
PHPUnit 9.3.11 by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.

R                                                                   1 / 1 (100%)

Time: 00:02.367, Memory: 18.00 MB

There was 1 risky test:

1) Tests\Browser\ExampleTest::testBasicExample
This test did not perform any assertions

/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/tests/Browser/ExampleTest.php:16

OK, but incomplete, skipped, or risky tests!
Tests: 1, Assertions: 0, Risky: 1.

It shall work now. Hope this helps.

How to Fix : Failed to connect to localhost port 9515: Connection refused

If you are looking at this post, chances high that, you are trying to run laravel dusk and seeing the following kind of error:

[[email protected] blog]$ php artisan dusk
PHPUnit 9.3.11 by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.

E                                                                   1 / 1 (100%)

Time: 00:00.331, Memory: 18.00 MB

There was 1 error:

1) Tests\Browser\ExampleTest::testBasicExample
Facebook\WebDriver\Exception\WebDriverCurlException: Curl error thrown for http POST to /session with params: {"capabilities":{"firstMatch":[{"browserName":"chrome","goog:chromeOptions":{"binary":"","args":["--disable-gpu","--headless"]}}]},"desiredCapabilities":{"browserName":"chrome","platform":"ANY","chromeOptions":{"binary":"","args":["--disable-gpu","--headless"]}}}

Failed to connect to localhost port 9515: Connection refused

/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/php-webdriver/webdriver/lib/Remote/HttpCommandExecutor.php:331
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/php-webdriver/webdriver/lib/Remote/RemoteWebDriver.php:136
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/tests/DuskTestCase.php:40
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/dusk/src/Concerns/ProvidesBrowser.php:200
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Support/helpers.php:234
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/dusk/src/Concerns/ProvidesBrowser.php:201
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/dusk/src/Concerns/ProvidesBrowser.php:95
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/vendor/laravel/dusk/src/Concerns/ProvidesBrowser.php:65
/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/blog/tests/Browser/ExampleTest.php:21

ERRORS!
Tests: 1, Assertions: 0, Errors: 1.

Chorme/Chromium browser runs it’s on 9515 port and laravel dusk tries to connect to it through the Browser binary, but failing to do so. To resolve the case, we first, need to check if chromedriver for linux can run or not.

First, browse your laravel root directory, in my case, it’s the blog directory and then run the chromedriver for linux as following:

cd blog
vendor/laravel/dusk/bin/chromedriver-linux

This should return something like the following if the driver able to load in memory:

[[email protected] blog]$ vendor/laravel/dusk/bin/chromedriver-linux
Starting ChromeDriver 85.0.4183.87 (cd6713ebf92fa1cacc0f1a598df280093af0c5d7-refs/branch-heads/[email protected]{#1689}) on port 9515
Only local connections are allowed.
Please see https://chromedriver.chromium.org/security-considerations for suggestions on keeping ChromeDriver safe.
ChromeDriver was started successfully.

But if it can not be loaded, it will return some kind of error like the following:

[[email protected] blog]$ vendor/laravel/dusk/bin/chromedriver-linux
vendor/laravel/dusk/bin/chromedriver-linux: error while loading shared libraries: libX11-xcb.so.1: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory

As the error suggests, it is failing to access the library called libX11-xcb. To install it in CentOS, you may run the following from root shell:

[[email protected] lib64]# yum install libX11-xcb*

Once you see the following:

Installed:
  libX11-xcb-1.6.8-3.el8.x86_64

Complete!

You may now, go back to the user shell, and run the chromedriver-linux again:

[[email protected] lib64]# su - elastic-keldysh
Last login: Thu Oct  1 15:28:29 IST 2020 on pts/0
[[email protected] ~]$ cd blog
[[email protected] blog]$ vendor/laravel/dusk/bin/chromedriver-linux
Starting ChromeDriver 85.0.4183.87 (cd6713ebf92fa1cacc0f1a598df280093af0c5d7-refs/branch-heads/[email protected]{#1689}) on port 9515
Only local connections are allowed.
Please see https://chromedriver.chromium.org/security-considerations for suggestions on keeping ChromeDriver safe.
ChromeDriver was started successfully.

Now, you may run the following to start using the laravel dusk:

php artisan dusk

After you are done resolving the 9515 error, you might also have to face another error with Chrome Binary, have a look at the following on how to resolve the error:

How to Install Laravel in Plesk using SSH

In plesk, to install laravel, we need to do two prerequisites first.

  1. Enable SSH for the Plesk User:

2. Add default PHP binary to Plesk Shell to allow using Composer:

Once the above steps are done, now, you may install the laravel installer with the following:

[[email protected] ~]$ composer global require laravel/installer
Changed current directory to /var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/.composer
Using version ^4.0 for laravel/installer
./composer.json has been created
Loading composer repositories with package information
Updating dependencies (including require-dev)
Package operations: 12 installs, 0 updates, 0 removals
  - Installing symfony/polyfill-php80 (v1.18.1): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/process (v5.1.6): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/polyfill-mbstring (v1.18.1): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/polyfill-intl-normalizer (v1.18.1): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/polyfill-intl-grapheme (v1.18.1): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/polyfill-ctype (v1.18.1): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/string (v5.1.6): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing psr/container (1.0.0): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/service-contracts (v2.2.0): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/polyfill-php73 (v1.18.1): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing symfony/console (v5.1.6): Downloading (100%)
  - Installing laravel/installer (v4.0.5): Downloading (100%)
symfony/service-contracts suggests installing symfony/service-implementation
symfony/console suggests installing symfony/event-dispatcher
symfony/console suggests installing symfony/lock
symfony/console suggests installing psr/log (For using the console logger)
Writing lock file
Generating autoload files
10 packages you are using are looking for funding.
Use the `composer fund` command to find out more!
[[email protected] ~]$

Once this is done, you may try to install laravel using the laravel command:

[[email protected] ~]$ laravel new blog
-bash: laravel: command not found

But, as you can see it is failed. It’s because the laravel binary is installed in the following path:

/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/.composer/vendor/bin

which doesn’t exist in our $PATH variable. Now you may add the above command to your PATH variable using the following tutorial:

I believe, you have already figured it out, it is as simple as the following command:

PATH=$PATH:/var/www/vhosts/elastic-keldysh.139-99-24-82.plesk.page/.composer/vendor/bin

Now, you may run the following to install laravel:

[[email protected] ~]$ laravel new blog

 _                               _
| |                             | |
| |     __ _ _ __ __ ___   _____| |
| |    / _` | '__/ _` \ \ / / _ \ |
| |___| (_| | | | (_| |\ V /  __/ |
|______\__,_|_|  \__,_| \_/ \___|_|

Creating a "laravel/laravel" project at "./blog"
Installing laravel/laravel (v8.0.3)
  - Installing laravel/laravel (v8.0.3): Downloading (100%)

So, yeah, as laravel says, Application ready! Build something amazing.

How to run Composer in Plesk User Shell / Plesk PHP

There are couple of ways you can run composer with Plesk Shell. My favorite one is to add php to your PATH variable, and it will automatically add the composer as well. You may follow through the following to modify your shell path variable to use Plesk PHP:

Once done, now you may run composer command and it shall work:

[[email protected] ~]$ composer -V
Composer version 1.10.5 2020-04-10 11:44:22
[[email protected] ~]$

The other way, is to directly use the composer.phar given from Plesk 9.0 library. This file is available under the following location:

/usr/lib64/plesk-9.0/composer.phar

So, you may run this using the following:

[[email protected] ~]$ /opt/plesk/php/7.4/bin/php /usr/lib64/plesk-9.0/composer.phar -V
Composer version 1.10.13 2020-09-09 11:46:34

This should work too. You may choose any, and it shall work for you. Good luck.

How to Fix /usr/bin/env: ‘php’: Permission denied in Plesk

If you are seeing an error like the following in your Plesk:

bash-4.4$ laravel
/usr/bin/env: ‘php’: Permission denied

Your binary to php is probably being used through redirection like .bashrc file and an alias is hooked for your php command to work. A better way to do this, is to hook the php binary to your PATH variable. You may do this and fix the error by following this tutorial:

Hope this helps. Thanks.

How to Add PHP in Default Path for Plesk / How to Fix -bash: php: command not found for Plesk User

If you have added SSH access to your plesk user using the following tutorial:

and then, tried to run php command like the following:

[[email protected] ~]$ php -v
-bash: php: command not found

You might have encountered the above error. This is because plesk do not store the php binary in your PATH variable locations. You may check your existing path variables here:

[[email protected] ~]$ echo $PATH
/usr/share/Modules/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin

Plesk stores it’s php binaries for different versions here:

/opt/plesk/php/

So, for example if you are trying to use PHP 7.4 binary, this would be like the following:

[[email protected] php]$ /opt/plesk/php/7.4/bin/php -v
PHP 7.4.10 (cli) (built: Sep  4 2020 03:49:35) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.4.0, Copyright (c) Zend Technologies
    with the ionCube PHP Loader + ionCube24 v10.4.2, Copyright (c) 2002-2020, by ionCube Ltd.
    with Zend OPcache v7.4.10, Copyright (c), by Zend Technologies

So, to use only php -v, you need to add this bin path to your path variable. You may do that by running the following command:

PATH=$PATH:/opt/plesk/php/7.4/bin/

Now, you may run the following and it will work:

[[email protected] php]$ php -v
PHP 7.4.10 (cli) (built: Sep  4 2020 03:49:35) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.4.0, Copyright (c) Zend Technologies
    with the ionCube PHP Loader + ionCube24 v10.4.2, Copyright (c) 2002-2020, by ionCube Ltd.
    with Zend OPcache v7.4.10, Copyright (c), by Zend Technologies

Now, we need to remember, this will only sustain for the existing session, if we log out and re login, this would be lost. To keep this permanent on each login, we need to put this in the .profile file. You may do this by running the following:

echo "PATH=$PATH:/opt/plesk/php/7.4/bin/" >> .profile

Once done, now you may try to login back again and see php -v is still working:

[[email protected] ~]$ exit
logout
[[email protected] ~]# su - elastic-keldysh
Last login: Thu Oct  1 13:42:13 IST 2020 on pts/0
[[email protected] ~]$ php -v
PHP 7.4.10 (cli) (built: Sep  4 2020 03:49:35) ( NTS )
Copyright (c) The PHP Group
Zend Engine v3.4.0, Copyright (c) Zend Technologies
    with the ionCube PHP Loader + ionCube24 v10.4.2, Copyright (c) 2002-2020, by ionCube Ltd.
    with Zend OPcache v7.4.10, Copyright (c), by Zend Technologies
[[email protected] ~]$

How to Call a Controller Method from Tinker – Laravel

LARAVEL TINKER

If you love to debug and test things in an app shell like me, then you are also a big fan of Tinker in laravel. Tinker is the shell prompt for Laravel and can be used to test and run different commands in php inside the app. You may run the following to hop into the tinker shell in a laravel environment:

php artisan tinker

Once you hop in the tinker, you can call any model or run any php command from the shell.

HOW TO RUN CONTROLLER METHOD FROM TINKER

There are times, you might feel more interest into evaluating a large controller method. To run a controller method, we first need to enter the service container of laravel. Laravel providers a helper method called ‘app()’ to enter the service container. It can then use a method called ‘call’ to access and execute a method inside a controller namespace, like the following:

app()->call('App\Http\Controllers\[email protected]');

Repace your controller name and the method name after @. One thing, you need to realize is that the method ‘call’ takes the method reference, not the function itself. That means, you can not add brackets () at the end of method name while giving it in the call method.

HOW TO PASS PARAMETERS TO CONTROLLER FROM TINKER

As discussed earlier, you are passing reference only, not the function, hence you can not pass parameters like we usually do in methods/functions. We need to pass this as an argument in array.

Here is a more constructive way to do this:

# let's make an instance of controller first, can be done using make method of service container
$controller = app()->make('App\Http\Controllers\AdminControllers');

# now let's call the method, inside the container, method name is 'getNewsByCatId'
app()->call([$controller, 'getNewsByCatId']);

# pass a parameter called id = 5
app()->call([$controller, 'getNewsByCatId'], ['id' => 5]);