How To: Start a Screen Session and Run a Command at a Time

Sometimes, you may want to run a screen command in a remote server. That makes it necessary to run the command inside the screen session while starting it.

How to start a screen session and run a command in one line

# screen -d -m sh -c "yourcommand"

From the man page of Screen:

-d -m : Start screen in “detached” mode. This creates a new session but doesn’t attach to it. This is useful for system startup scripts.

sh -c: Starts a shell and runs a command for you.

 

How To: Get Username from UID & Vice Versa in Linux

Question:

I have an UID, how do I get the username belongs to this UID in Linux?

How to Get UID from USERNAME in Linux

We usually know, there is a dedicated command called ‘id’ in linux given to find UID from username is called ‘id

You can use that to get the UID from the username in linux:

# id -u root
0

How to get Username from UID in Linux

Although, there is no built in command get fetch the username from the UID. We can use a pipe and regular expression match on getent to do that.

getent is a unix command that helps a user get entries in a number of important text files called databases. This includes the passwd and group databases which store user information – hence getent is a common way to look up user details on Unix.

You can use the following command to find username of the UID 752 for example in a system:

# getent passwd "752"|cut -d: -f1
texstard

getent can take group database too, although, we have used passwd database as that contains the UID of the respective linux user.

Linux: Assertion failed on job for iptables.service.

If you are using Centos 7 or RHEL 7 or any of it’s variant, you are probably using ‘Firewalld’ by default. Although, if you are a iptables fan like me, who likes it’s simplicity and manipulative nature instead of a full form firewall, then you probably have disabled firewalld from your CentOS 7 instance and using iptables. There are couple of servers, where I use runtime iptables rules for postrouting and masquerading. These rules are dynamically generated by my scripts instead of the sysconfig file under:

/etc/sysconfig/iptables

This file is generated upon running the iptables save command:

service iptables save

which I rarely do so.

Error Details

Which is why, I don’t have a /etc/sysconfig/iptables file in those servers and a common error I see while restarting iptables in those system is the following:

# systemctl restart iptables.service
Assertion failed on job for iptables.service.

How to Fix The Error

The error appears because you don’t have any rule in /etc/sysconfig/iptables or the file doesn’t exist either. You can ignore the error as iptables would still run. To eradicate the error, simply make sure you have some iptables rules loaded on your system using the status command:

iptables -S

And then, run:

service iptables save

Once done, restarting iptables shouldn’t show the error any longer.

How to: Find dm number of a LVM logical volume

Sometimes, you will see the error thrown in dmesg or /var/log/messages are mentioned in dm-number format, while you manage the disk using lvm logical volume name. This is because lvm logical volumes are designed through kernel device mapper technique and kernel recognizes volumes using dm numbers. There is a tool to list all the device mappers used for block devices under Linux. Simply type the following to list the maps:

# lsblk

It shall show something like the following:

There you can see the dm number for each lvm volume is listed under first bracket. For example the swap in this server is created with LVM with the name vg_iof442/swap and has the dm-1 mapping.

Why does Your New Site Take Ages to Load?

I was trying to track down a couple of website slow down reports lately. There is an interesting change of slow down behaviour these days in web application. From a conventional standpoint, people firmly believes that their static contents are not going to affect the performance of their websites other than images being heavy.
 
In reality, they are ignoring the fact that they are using jQuery plugins of many kinds from multiple developers. Hence cumulative number & sizes of JS files are pretty large these days comparing with all the plugins were coming from a single developer. Once the number of static file increases and goes beyond 100 per page, a cookie domain can hit some serious performance penalty. Geolocation for these small files and accessing them from single source can also increase the time geometrically. There is undoubtedly a large market of CDN due to the nature of development in web application.
 
I have seen, people these days are more aware about handling large data wisely than before. If you are using a Cloud from any provider, you are possibly using an E5 core or multiple (Mellowhost uses only E5 nodes right at this moment), that usually comes with access to a 16/24/32MB cache. Your static handling going to be more important in performance on these type of resources than your database, as threading is more of a concern than a single process handling in these virtualised resources.

Misconception about Server Specification!

“Oh! Damn! That server seems pretty cheap, giving me 12GB RAM, dual intel xeon 5430, so, lets go and purchase it” – a  big misconception to judge a server specification looking at their cpu and the ram size in current web hosting industry. I have been playing a lot in Webhostingtalk and some other hosting forums these days and found people are asking the same question everyday, which server is going to be right for me. Here I will go through some basic idea why the idea of users are biasing everyday and how to judge a proper server specification.

Continue reading “Misconception about Server Specification!”